The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria
Author: Abimbola Adesoji
Abstract: From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram uprising, Nigeria was bedevilled by ethno-religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a secular state. Whereas the religious sensitivity of Nigerians provided fertile ground for the breeding of the Boko Haram sect, the sect’s blossoming was also aided by the prevailing economic dislocation in Nigerian society, the advent of party politics (and the associated desperation of politicians for political power), and the ambivalence of some vocal Islamic leaders, who, though they did not actively embark on insurrection, either did nothing to stop it from fomenting, or only feebly condemned it. These internal factors coupled with growing Islamic fundamentalism around the world make a highly volatile Nigerian society prone to violence, as evidenced by the Boko Haram uprising.
‘Boko Haram’ and terrorism in Nigeria
Author: A.I. Ajayi
Abstract: In this study we examined the origin of the Boko Haram movement in Nigeria and how it transformed from a fundamentalist religious group to a terrorist organization. Root causes like poverty, unemployment, politicization of religion and general socio-economic malaise afflicting the nation are focused upon as explanations for the evolution of extremist religious groups. We also discussed foreign links and supports for the Boko Haram movement as well as the manifestations of its terrorist activities. While admitting that it may take some time before the scourge of Boko Haram can be obliterated we feel that in the short run its activities can be curtailed and contained by beefing up security operations while more fundamental remedial measures should be initiated in order to prevent a re-occurrence of acts of terrorism by Boko Haram or any other aggrieved party in the future.
Terrorism and Humanitarian Crisis in Nigeria
Author: Okoli, Al Chukwuma & Iortyer, Philip
Abstract: This paper explores the humanitarian impact of terrorism in Nigeria from the standpoint of Boko Haram insurgency. This is against the backdrop of the rising spate of violent attacks orchestrated by members of the Islamic sect in the northern part of the country over the years. By way of scholarly exegesis and empirical evidence, predicated on secondary sources, the paper posits that the Boko Haram insurgency has resulted in dire humanitarian situation as evident in human casualties, human right abuses, population displacement and refugee debacle, livelihood crisis, and public insecurity. The paper submits that this scenario portends negatively for the sustenance of national security in Nigeria. The paper recommends a strategic paradigm shift from anti-terrorism to counter-terrorism as a strategy for containing the crisis.
Al-Shabaab Terrorists Propaganda and the Kenya Government Response
Author: Elijah O.S. Odhiambo
Abstract: Al-Shabaab terrorist faction cared about the popular support they enjoyed within the Southern Somalia population they claimed to represent. This level of support either rose or fell in the aftermath of a campaign of terrorist violence. Al-Shabaab terrorist used propaganda as an effective tactic for mobilizing political support for their cause. This paper models a scenario in which Al-Shabaab extremist faction consider attacking the Somalia transitional government forces and African Union Mission for Somalia forces in the hopes of provoking a counterterrorist response that radicalized the population, increased the extremists’ support at the expense of a moderate faction. In this article, we looked at Al-Shabaab terrorist group propaganda and the Kenya government response which turned Al-Shabaab’s violent discourse as unjustifiable by effective use of the Mass Media that reached into the deepest parts of Somalia and discrediting those who spread rumours by neutralization of the pernicious effects.
Terrorism without Borders – Somalia’s Al-Shabaab and the Global Jihad Network
Author: Daniel E. Agbiboa
Abstract: This article sets out to explore the evolution, operational strategy and transnational dimensions of Harakat Al-Shabab al-Mujahedeen (aka Al-Shabab), the Somali-based Islamist terrorist group. The article argues that Al-Shabab’s latest Westgate attack in Kenya should be understood in the light of the group’s deepening ties with Al-Qaeda and its global jihad, especially since 2009 when Al-Shabab formally pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda and welcomed the organisation’s core members into its leadership.